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EJU Syllabus for Biology (To be applied to the questions of the 2015 EJU 1st Session (June))

[Purpose of the Examination]
The purpose of this examination is to test whether international students have the basic academic ability in science necessary for studying at universities or other such higher educational institutions in Japan.
[Classification of Examination]
The examination consists of three subjects, i.e. physics, chemistry, and biology; examinees will select two of these subjects.
[Scope of Questions]
The scope of questions is as follows. What is taught in elementary and junior high schools is regarded to have been already learned and therefore is to be included in the scope of the EJU. What questions consists of in each subject is classified into categories, each of which is presented by topics and scientific terms.

Biology

The scope of questions will follow the scope of “Basic Biology ” and “Advanced Biology” of the curriculum guidelines for high schools in Japan.

I Biological Phenomena and Substances

1. Cells and molecules
(1) Biological substances and cells
Organelle
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Cytoskeleton
(2) Biological phenomena and proteins
Protein structure
Protein function [Example] enzyme

2. Metabolism
(1) Life activities and energy
ATP and its role
(2) Respiration [Example] glycolytic pathway, citric acid cycle, electron transport system, fermentation and glycolysis
(3) Photosynthesis [Example] photosystem I, photosystem II, Calvin-Benson cycle, electron transport system
(4) Bacterial photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
(5) Nitrogen assimilation

3. Genetic information and its expression
(1) Genetic information and DNA
Double-helix structure of DNA
Gene, chromosome and genome
(2) Segregation of genetic information
Segregation of genetic information by somatic cell division
Cell cycle and DNA replication
Mechanism of DNA replication
(3) Expression of genetic information
Mechanism of gene expression [Example] transcription, translation, splicing,
Changes in genetic information [Example] gene mutation
(4) Control of gene expression
Regulation of transcriptional level
Selective gene expression
Cell differentiation by gene expression control
(5) Biotechnology [Example] genetic transformation, gene transfer

ll Reproduction and Generation

1. Sexual reproduction
(1) Meiosis and fertilization
Gene segregation by meiosis
Genetically diverse combination by fertilization
Sex chromosomes
(2) Genes and chromosomes
Genetic linkage and gene recombination
Chromosomal crossing-over and gene recombination

2. Animal development
(1) Animal gametogenesis and fertilization
(2) Early developmental process in animals
(3) Cell differentiation and morphogenesis in animals

3. Plant development
(1) Plant gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis
(2) Organ differentiation in plants [Example] floral morphogenesis

lll Homeostasis of the internal environment in living organisms

1. The internal environment in living organisms
(1) Fluid movement in the circulatory system
(2) The composition of body fluid and its concentration control
(3) Mechanism of blood coagulation

2. Homeostatic mechanism of the internal environment in living organisms
(1) Internal regulation by autonomic nerves and hormones [Example] control of blood glucose level

3. Immunity
(1) Cells in immune system
(2) Mechanism of immune system

lV Organisms’ response to external signals

1. Reactions and actions of animals to external signals
(1) Perception and response to stimulus
Sensory receptors and their functions
Effectors and their functions
Nervous systems and their functions
(2) Animal behavior

2. Plant responses to external signals
(1) Functions of plant hormones [Example] functions of auxins, functions of gibberellins
(2) Functions of plant photoreceptors [Example] functions of phytochrome

V Ecology and Environment

1. Populations and communities
(1) Populations
Populations and their structures
Interaction within populations
Interaction among populations
(2) Communities
Communities and their structures

2. Ecosystems
(1) Matter production and cycle of matter in ecosystems
[Example] food web and trophic level, carbon cycle and flow of energy, nitrogen cycle
(2) Ecosystems and biodiversity
Genetic diversity
Species diversity
Diversity of ecosystems
Ecological balance and conservation
(3) Diversity and distribution of vegetation [Example: succession of vegetation]
(4) Climates and biomes

VI Biological Evolution and Phylogeny

1. Mechanism of biological evolution
(1) Origin of life and transition of organisms
Beginning of life
Evolution of organisms
Human evolution
(2) Mechanism of evolution
Variation between individuals (mutation)
Changes in gene frequency and its mechanism
Molecular evolution and neutral evolution
Species differentiation
Coevolution

2. Phylogeny of organisms
(1) Phylogenetic classification of organisms [Example] Comparison of DNA base sequence
(2) Higher taxa and phylogeny

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